The timely removal of excess water following heavy rainfall or local floods is important to avoid crop damage and build-up of water logging. The inability to remove excess rainfall runoff can be problematic in low lying areas or areas with a particular flat gradient.

In storm water drainage, before constructing dedicated storm water drainage systems a number of aspects should be considered:

•         Priority should be given to unblocking natural drains closed by roads and residential areas and make adequate cross drainage on new and old infrastructure compulsory.

•         Retaining runoff at source or diverting excess water where the gradient allows to recharge areas will have a double benefit: the runoff will be used beneficially and no downstream flooding problems will occur.

•         Besides capturing storm water, local dugouts in some cases may (in drier periods) also serve to lower groundwater tables and provide local freshwater storage.